# Transforms

**Transforms** process a data stream to filter data, calculate new fields, or derive new data streams. Transforms are typically specified within the `transform`

array of a data definition. In addition, transforms that do not filter or generate new data objects can be used within the `transform`

array of a mark definition to specify post-encoding transforms.

The following example defines a new data set with transforms to filter values and then compute a stacked layout (e.g., for a stacked bar chart):

```
{
"data": [
{
"name": "table",
"transform": [
{ "type": "filter", "expr": "datum.value > 5" },
{ "type": "stack", "field": "value", "groupby": ["category"] }
]
}
]
}
```

All transforms require a *type* property, specifying the name of the transform. Transforms that produce a value as a side-effect (in particular, the bin, extent, and crossfilter transforms) can include a *signal* property to specify a unique signal name to which to bind the transform’s state value.

## Basic Transforms

Transforms for processing streams of data objects.

`aggregate`

- Group and summarize a data stream.`bin`

- Discretize numeric values into uniform bins.`collect`

- Collect and sort all data objects in a stream.`countpattern`

- Count the frequency of patterns in text strings.`cross`

- Perform a cross-product of a data stream with itself.`density`

- Generate values drawn from a probability distribution.`dotbin`

- Perform density binning for dot plot construction. ≥ 5.7`extent`

- Compute minimum and maximum values over a data stream.`filter`

- Filter a data stream using a predicate expression.`flatten`

- Map array-typed fields to data objects, one per array entry. ≥ 3.1`fold`

- Collapse selected data fields into*key*and*value*properties.`formula`

- Extend data objects with derived fields using a formula expression.`identifier`

- Assign unique key values to data objects.`kde`

- Estimate smoothed densities for numeric values. ≥ 5.4`impute`

- Perform imputation of missing values.`joinaggregate`

- Extend data objects with calculated aggregate values.`loess`

- Fit a smoothed trend line using local regression. ≥ 5.4`lookup`

- Extend data objects by looking up key values on another stream.`pivot`

- Pivot unique values to new aggregate fields. ≥ 3.2`project`

- Generate derived data objects with a selected set of fields.`quantile`

- Calculate sample quantile values over an input data stream. ≥ 5.7`regression`

- Fit regression models to smooth and predict values. ≥ 5.4`sample`

- Randomly sample data objects in a stream.`sequence`

- Generate a new stream containing a sequence of numeric values.`timeunit`

- Discretize date-time values into time unit bins. ≥ 5.8`window`

- Calculate over ordered groups, including ranking and running totals.

## Geographic and Spatial Transforms

Transforms for modeling spatial data, cartographic projection, and geographic guides.

`contour`

-*Deprecated.*Model a spatial distribution using discrete levels.`geojson`

- Consolidate geographic data into a GeoJSON feature collection.`geopath`

- Map GeoJSON features to SVG path strings.`geopoint`

- Map (longitude, latitude) coordinates to (x, y) points.`geoshape`

- Map GeoJSON features to a shape instance for procedural drawing.`graticule`

- Generate a reference grid for cartographic maps.`heatmap`

- Generate heatmap images for raster grid data. ≥ 5.8`isocontour`

- Generate level set contours for raster grid data. ≥ 5.8`kde2d`

- Estimate 2D densities as output raster grids. ≥ 5.8

## Layout Transforms

Transforms for calculating spatial coordinates to achieve various layouts.

`linkpath`

- Route visual links between node elements.`pie`

- Compute angular layout for pie and donut charts.`stack`

- Compute stacked layouts for groups of values.`force`

- Compute a force-directed layout via physical simulation.`voronoi`

- Compute a Voronoi diagram for a set of points.`wordcloud`

- Compute a word cloud layout of text strings.

## Hierarchy Transforms

Transforms for processing hierarchy (tree) data and performing tree layout.

`nest`

- Generate a tree structure by grouping objects by field values.`stratify`

- Generate a tree structure using explicit key values.`treelinks`

- Generate link data objects for a tree structure.`pack`

- Tree layout based on circular enclosure.`partition`

- Tree layout based on spatial adjacency of nodes.`tree`

- Tree layout for a node-link diagram.`treemap`

- Tree layout based on recursive rectangular subdivision.

## Cross-Filter Transforms

Transforms for supporting fast incremental filtering of multi-dimensional data.

`crossfilter`

- Maintain a filter mask for multiple dimensional queries.`resolvefilter`

- Resolve crossfilter output to generate filtered data streams.