Dynamic Behaviors with Parameters

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// A Single View Specification
  "params": [  // An array of named parameters.
    {"name": ..., ...}
  "mark": ...,
  "encoding": ...,

Parameters are the basic building block in Vega-Lite’s grammar of interaction. Parameters can either be simple variables or more complex selections that map user input (e.g., mouse clicks and drags) to data queries. Parameters can be used throughout the remainder of the chart specification to determine encoding rules, filter data points, determine data extents, or in expression strings. They can also optionally be bound to input widgets (e.g., sliders or drop down menus).

Documentation Overview

Defining a Parameter

Both variable and selection parameters support the following properties:

Property Type Description
name String

Required. A unique name for the variable parameter. Parameter names should be valid JavaScript identifiers: they should contain only alphanumeric characters (or “$”, or “_”) and may not start with a digit. Reserved keywords that may not be used as parameter names are “datum”, “event”, “item”, and “parent”.

value Any

The initial value of the parameter.

Default value: undefined

bind Binding

Binds the parameter to an external input element such as a slider, selection list or radio button group.

Variable Parameters

Variables are the simplest form a parameter can take. Variable parameters allow for a value to be defined once and then reused throughout the rest of the specification. For example, here we define a cornerRadius parameter:

As the name suggests, variable values can be modified dynamically, either by binding the variable to input widgets (e.g., sliders or drop down menus), or by modifying the underlying signal in a Vega view API. For example, here we include widgets to customize bar mark’s corner radius:


Besides setting the initial value, you can also create a parameter using an expression (expr).

Property Type Description
expr Expr

An expression for the value of the parameter. This expression may include other parameters, in which case the parameter will automatically update in response to upstream parameter changes.

For example, here we make the inner bars in a bullet chart depends on the chart height.

Note: Height is a built-in parameter, as described in the next section.

Built-In Variable Parameters

A few parameter names are automatically processed and/or reserved:

  • Parameters for the specification width, height, padding, autosize, and background properties are automatically defined. Specifications may include definitions for these parameters in the top-level parameters array, in which case the definitions will be merged with any top-level specification property values, with precedence given to properties defined in the parameters array.
  • The parameters names datum, item, event, parent are reserved for top-level variables within expressions. Specifications may not define parameters named datum, item, event, or parent.
  • If you define a parameter named cursor, its value will automatically drive the CSS mouse cursor for the Vega-Lite view. For more details about cursor parameter, see the Vega documentation for the underlying cursor signal.

Selection Parameters

Selection parameters, on the other hand, define data queries that are driven by direct manipulation user input (e.g., mouse clicks or drags). A parameter becomes a selection when the select property is specified. This property identifies properties of a selection including its type (point or interval), which determines the default events that trigger a selection and the resultant data query.

Property Type Description
select String | PointSelection | IntervalSelection

Required. Determines the default event processing and data query for the selection. Vega-Lite currently supports two selection types:

  • "point" – to select multiple discrete data values; the first value is selected on click and additional values toggled on shift-click.
  • "interval" – to select a continuous range of data values on drag.

For example, try the two types against the example selection (named pts) below: .

While selection types provide useful defaults, you can set select to be a selection definition to override default selection behaviors and customize the interaction design. See the selection documentation for more information about the selection definition.

Using Parameters

In Expression Strings

Parameter names can be used directly in expression strings. For selection parameters, the parameter name references an object with properties corresponding to the data fields that participate in the selection (specified either by the encodings or fields property).

For instance, in the example below, the opacity of the point marks is driven by a bound variable parameter, and their size is determined by a clicked point’s Miles_per_Gallon.

As Predicates

Predicates are functions that return a boolean true or false value. While predicates can be explicitly written as expression strings (for example, opacityVar == 25 or sel.Miles_per_Gallon > 75), it is often more convenient to treat a parameter as a predicate directly. When variable parameters are used as predicates, their values are coerced to booleans following JavaScript’s conventions. For selection parameters, the predicate evaluates to true when the corresponding data point lies within the selection, and false otherwise.

For instance, in the example below, we use a variable parameter to toggle the color of points in the scatterplot and a selection parameter to resize points on hover. Notice: by default, empty selections are considered to contain all data values (and thus all points are large at the start, or when the mouse cursor moves into empty space). We can toggle this behavior by setting the optional empty property on the predicate: .

See the condition documentation for more information.

As another example of using parameters as predicates, consider how we might use one view to filter the data shown in another view. Below, we show two scatterplots concatenated vertically. An interval selection (named brush) is defined in the first plot and is used to filter the points in the second. Thus, the Acceleration x Displacement scatterplot only visualizes points that fall within the brushed region.

Data Extents

Selection parameters can additionally be used to define two types of data extents: binning logic or scale domains. Let’s look at two examples of an interaction technique called overview+detail.

In the specification below, the bottom plot contains an interval selection named brush, which is used in the top plot to interactive re-bin data and “zoom” into the brushed region.

The specification below has a similar setup. However, in this case, the brush in the bottom view drives the domain of the top plot’s x-scale, to make it show only the selected interval.

An alternate way to construct either of these examples would be to first filter out the input data using the selection like so:

  "vconcat": [{
    "transform": [{"filter": {"param": "brush"}}],

However, setting the data extents (rather than filtering data out) yields superior interactive performance. Rather than testing whether each data value falls within the selection or not, the data extents (either the bin extents or scale domains) are changed directly to the brush extents.

If the selection is projected over multiple fields or encodings, one must be given as part of the data extent definition. Vega-Lite automatically infers this property if the selection is only projected over a single field or encoding. Thus, with the above example, the scale domain can be specified more explicitly as:

  • "scale": {"domain": {"param": "brush", "encoding": "x"}} or
  • "scale": {"domain": {"param": "brush", "field": "date"}}

Note: Bin extents can be explicitly specified using a similar syntax. For a selection to manipulate the scales of its own view, use the bind operator instead.

Selection Configuration

// Top-level View Specification
  "config": {          // Configuration Object
    "selection": { ... },   // - Selection Configuration

The selection property of the config object determines the default properties and transformations applied to the two types of selection parameters. The selection config can contain the following properties:

Property Type Description
point PointSelection

The default definition for a point selection. All properties and transformations for a point selection definition (except type) may be specified here.

For instance, setting point to {"on": "dblclick"} populates point selections on double-click by default.

interval IntervalSelection

The default definition for an interval selection. All properties and transformations for an interval selection definition (except type) may be specified here.

For instance, setting interval to {"translate": false} disables the ability to move interval selections by default.