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The stack property of a position field definition determines type of stacking offset if the field should be stacked.

Property Type Description
stack String | Null

Type of stacking offset if the field should be stacked. stack is only applicable for x and y channels with continuous domains. For example, stack of y can be used to customize stacking for a vertical bar chart.

stack can be one of the following values:

  • "zero": stacking with baseline offset at zero value of the scale (for creating typical stacked bar and area chart).
  • "normalize" - stacking with normalized domain (for creating normalized stacked bar and area charts.
    -"center" - stacking with center baseline (for streamgraph).
  • null - No-stacking. This will produce layered bar and area chart.

Default value: zero for plots with all of the following conditions are true: (1) the mark is bar or area; (2) the stacked measure channel (x or y) has a linear scale; (3) At least one of non-position channels mapped to an unaggregated field that is different from x and y. Otherwise, null by default.

// Specification of a Single View
  "encoding": {     // Encoding
    "x" or "y": {
      "field": ...,
      "type": "quantitative",
      "stack": ..., // Stack

Documentation Overview

Stack Bar Chart

Adding a color field to a bar chart also creates stacked bar chart by default.

Stack Area Chart

Similarly, adding a color field to area chart also creates stacked area chart by default.

Normalized Stacked Bar and Area Charts

You can set stack to "normalize" to create normalized (or percentage) stacked bar and area charts.


Setting stack to "center" for a stacked area chart creates a streamgraph:

Layered Bar Chart

If stack is null, the marks will be layered on top of each other. In this example, setting the mark’s opacity to be semi-transparent (0.6) creates a layered bar chart.

Sorting Stack Order

You can use the order channel to sort the order of stacked marks.

For example, given a stacked bar chart for the barley dataset:

By default, the stacked bar are sorted by the stack grouping fields (color in this example).

Mapping the sum of yield to order channel will sort the layer of stacked bar by the sum of yield instead.

Here we can see that site with higher yields for each type of barley are put on the top of the stack (rightmost).

If you want to define custom sort order, you can derive a new field using the calculate transform and sort by that field instead. For example, the following plot makes “University Farm” and “Grand Rapids” be the first (0) and second values in the stack order:

Note: we plan to have a better syntax for customized sort order in the future.

Layering Lines on top of Stacked Area Chart

Since line marks are not stacked by default, to layer lines on top of stacked area charts, you have to manually set the stack offset for the lines.